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The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century.
In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire.
However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "[t]he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan." Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world.
It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world.
It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast.
Its territory covers 652,000 km (252,000 sq mi), making it the 41st largest country in the world.
Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia.
A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of civil wars that devastated much of Afghanistan and continues to this day.
The root name "Afghan" was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian.Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns.Through the ages the land has been home to various peoples and witnessed numerous military campaigns; notably by Alexander the Great, Mauryas, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviet, and in the modern-era by Western powers.The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khiljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.
Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country.
It remained peaceful during Zahir Shah's forty years of monarchy.