Carbon 14 dating the
The Howard-Vyse expedition also found another strange artefact while exploring the outside faces of the Khufu pyramid with explosives: a plate of iron measuring 26 x 8.8 cm. The discovery of the iron plate was not made by Howard-Vyse himself but by an engineer called J. Hill was adamant that the iron plate must be contemporaneous with the construction of the pyramid since he had to blast away two outer tiers of blocks in order to reach it and extract it from a masonry joint near or within the mouth of the southern shaft. Lucas examined the iron plate and, although at first agreed with Mr.The iron plate was eventually donated to the British Museum along with an affidavit from Hill and also from others who had been present during the find. Hill that it was contemporaneous with the pyramid, Lucas later changed his mind when he realized that the iron was not from meteoritic origin. Jones of Imperial College London, asked the British Museum for a small sample of the iron plate so that they could conduct a full scientific examination.Also, during the Howard-Vyse expedition in 1836-7, relics were found within the Third Pyramid (Menkaure) consisting of human bones and parts of the lid of a wooden coffin.But carbon 14 dating revealed that the bones were from the early Christian era and the lid was determined to be from the Saite Period . Although iron cannot be carbon dated, the story of its discovery and testing is worth being reminded of here in view of the possible huge implications it might bear on the Pyramid Age. Hill found the plate embedded in a joint on the south face of the monument near or within the entrance of the so-called air-channel.For example, it is reported by Abu Szalt, a medieval Arab chronicler from Spain, that when the Caliph Ma’amoun entered the Great Pyramid for the first time in the 9th century and made his way to sarcophagus in the King’s Chamber, ‘…the lid was forced opened, but nothing was discovered excepting some bones completely decayed by time.’.In 1818, when Belzoni entered the Second Pyramid (Khafre), he found some bones inside the sarcophagus which apparently turned out to be from a bull .It is generally believed that iron was unknown in the Pyramid Age and that the only possible source of iron was from iron-meteorites, which are composed of about 95 iron and 5 nickel . El Gayar of the faculty of Petroleum and Mineral in Suez, Egypt, and Dr. After El Gayar and Jones conducted a series of chemical and microscopic tests on the iron plate, these scientists concluded that: ‘the plate was incorporated within the pyramid at the time that structure was built’ i.e. The chemical and microscopic analyses of the iron plate also revealed very small traces of gold, suggesting that the plate had perhaps been originally gilded.
We know of certain suspect artefacts found in the Giza pyramids that, had they survived, could have been used for Carbon 14 dating.El Gayar and Jones also pointed out that the plate’s dimension of 26 x 26 cm. Through these documents I then traced the articles published in Nature and The Graphic. Vivian Davies, the curator of the Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum. Hawass as to the origins of this wood, who claimed it might have been put there in modern times after the shaft was opened by Waynman Dixon in 1872. It lies flush against the south wall of the small ‘corner length’ of the northern shaft (some 24 meters up, the main shaft turns sharply to the west, thus making this ‘small corner length’) and protrudes some 30 cm. This position makes it impossible for it to have been pushed up there in modern times.implied it was sized in royal cubit, the measure used by the pyramid builders (half a royal cubit of 52.37 cm. As we have said, the plate could not be Carbon 14 dated since it contained no organic material. While still searching for the relics, it was recalled that it was John Dixon who, in 1872-6, had arranged for the transport of the Thotmoses III obelisk (Cleopatra’s Needle) to London’s Victoria Embankment and, more importantly, that underneath its pedestal Dixon had ceremoniously embedded various relics including a cigar box! A search was called and the relics were ‘re-discovered’ at the British Museum in the second week of December 1993 . There are also small pieces of limestone on the top part of the wood, obviously chipping that fell from a mason’s mallet and chisel during the construction of the shaft.In spite of the findings of Gayer and Jones, the British Museum still assumes that the iron plate was probably a piece broken off a spade or shovel used by Arabs in medieval times. Naturally many of us began to suspect that this item might have been the very same cigar box which contained the ancient relics found in the shafts of the Queen’s Chamber of the Great Pyramid. I decided at that stage of the search to publish a full page article in the British newspaper, The Independent , in the hope that someone might remember the whereabouts of the Dixon Relics. Ian Shore, who had registered the relics back in 1972 at the British Museum, read the article and remembered them being donated by Mrs. Unfortunately the small piece of ‘cedar-like’ wood was missing, and thus no Carbon 14 dating was possible. Also the uncanny similarity of the shape of this wood to the 12 cm.
THE DIXON RELICS In September 1872 a British engineer, Waynman Dixon, working in Egypt was requested by Piazzi Smyth, the Astronomer Royal of Scotland, to undertake for him some casual exploration inside the Great Pyramid . The relics are now displayed at the British Museum’s Egyptian section.  The bone is that of a thumb coming from a left hand. Mitzi De Martino at the AMS Facility, University of Arizona, Department of Physics. piece found by Dixon at the bottom of the northern shaft (which also has a rectangular cross of 1.25 x 1.1 cm.It was around this time that Dixon discovered the openings of the two shafts on the south and north walls of the Queen’s Chamber. Edwards, the curator of the Egyptian Antiquities Department. We will all recall that in March 1993 the German Engineer, Rudolf Gantenbrink, explored the shafts of the Queen’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid using a miniature robot fitted with a video camera.  By M-Net TV of South Africa, producer and director D.  Herodotus, The Histories, Book II, 127  L. Lehner, The Complete Pyramids, Thames & Hudson 1997, p. which was described as having ‘formed part of a measure length’) makes it nearly certain that both pieces belong to the same original measure of rod.