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Although L5-TM data were useful for mapping micro-urban heat islands in Dallas, the authors recommended use of exact on-the-ground temperatures for image calibration in future studies.Remote sensing data have been used to help model urban surface temperatures; specifically, validating LST data with actual on-the-ground temperature measurements, known as ground-truthing.The data captured by satellite can be transformed into several helpful measures, including land surface temperatures (LST) and percent surface imperviousness (SI).LSTs are a primary factor in determining surface radiation and human comfort in cities (Weng 2009).Thermal remote sensing products such as thermal images captured by the Landsat-5 Thermal Mapper (L5-TM) (NASA 2013) instrument have been used to study areas of higher relative temperatures within a city, also known as micro-urban heat islands (Johnson 2009).L5-TM has an advantage over other sensors, such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (NASA 2011), in that L5-TM provides a spatial resolution of 120 m (compared with 1,000 m for the thermal band of MODIS); however, it provides only 16-day repeatability, at best, compared with 1-day repeatability for MODIS (Aniello et al. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is another sensor that could be used, but imagery is not available free of charge (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory 2012).

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The higher spatial resolution of L5-TM information is important in micro-urban heat island studies, so we have focused on those data here.The SI is defined as the percent of the surface of an area that is not penetrable by water, such as concrete or asphalt, and can be mapped at a 30-m resolution with L5-TM.