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Also found were fragments of apocryphal and pseudepigraphical books, as well as manuscripts of previously unknown religious works, including a Temple Scroll, a Manual of Discipline, and a Thanksgiving Scroll. For example, the three Samuel manuscripts from Qumran are much fuller texts than those of the Masoretic Bible (the traditional text).They considered themselves proper heirs of Israel and placed themselves under a new covenant as Sons of Light to contend with Sons of Darkness.They had a strict reading of the law, lived in daily self-denial, practiced ablutions, and had ceremonial meals.Late works were excluded, with the exception of Daniel, which, the rabbis presumably, attributed to the Persian period. The literature of Qumran includes apocalypses and works colored by apocalyptic.The writers saw world history in the grip of a final war between the Spirit of truth and the Spirit of evil; this conflict is at once cosmic and earthly.The Messiah was about to appear, "bringing the sword." Collapse of other social structures was imminent before the new age. The manuscripts include segments of all the Hebrew scriptures (except Esther; see Old Testament), and more than one variant of many.
Their Manual of Discipline reflects the expectation of the immediate coming of the heavenly kingdom.
A "Teacher of Righteousness" was apparently the priestly head of the earthly community of God; the forces of good were also led by a cosmic power or Holy Spirit called the "Prince of Light." The writers saw their own age as the age of consummation.