They reached back at least two generations, into the reigns of John’s father, Henry II, and his brother Richard I, “the Lionheart”.During the combined reigns of these first three Plantagenets, English government experienced deep changes.These were payments that the king claimed the right to demand from his barons when they inherited estates and titles, or when he wanted to raise an army, and so on. Richard I’s involvement in the Third Crusade, after which he was taken prisoner and held for ransom, cost perhaps £200,000: roughly the equivalent of 10 years’ national income.
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There were equally massive wars in France, rebellions to put down and the ordinary cost of government.
So the Plantagenets were in chronic need of money and squeezed the country – particularly the barons – hard.
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